Hierarchically porous zeolites synthesized with carbon materials as templates
Hierarchically porous zeolites are promising candidates in catalytic conversion of relatively bulky molecules, and their syntheses have attracted significant attention. From both industrial and scientific perspectives, different carbon materials have been widely employed as hard templates for the preparation of hierarchically porous zeolites during the past two decades. In this review, the progress in synthetic strategies using carbon materials as templates is comprehensively summarized. Depending on the affinity between the carbon templates and zeolite precursors, the substantial strategies for synthesizing hierarchical zeolites are introduced in direct templates and indirect templates. Direct templates methods, by which the carbon materials are directly mixed with precursors gel as hard templates, are first reviewed. Then, we discuss the indirect templates method (crystallization of carbon-silica composites), by which the carbon is produced by in situ pyrolysis of organic-inorganic precursors. In addition, the technique of encapsulating metal species into zeolites crystals with the assistance of carbon templates is also discussed. In the conclusion part, the factors affecting the synthesis of carbon-templated hierarchically porous zeolites are remarked. This review is expected to attract interest in the synthesis strategies of hierarchically porous zeolites, especially cost-effective and large-scale production methodologies, which are essential to the industrial application of hierarchical zeolites.
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