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      Catalytic steam reforming is a promising route for tar conversion to high energy syngas in the process of biomass gasification. However, the catalyst deactivation caused by the deposition of residual carbon is still a major challenge. In this paper, a modified Ni-based Ni-Co/Al O -CaO (Ni-Co/AC) catalyst and a conventional Ni/Al O (Ni/A) catalyst were prepared and tested for tar catalytic removal in which toluene was selected as the model component. Experiments were conducted to reveal the influences of the reaction temperature and the ratio between steam to carbon on the toluene conversion and the hydrogen yield. The physicochemical properties of the modified Ni-based catalyst were determined by a series of characterization methods. The results indicated that the Ni-Co alloy was determined over the Ni-Co/AC catalyst. The doping of CaO and the presence of Ni-Co alloy promoted the performance of toluene catalytic dissociation over Ni-Co/AC catalyst compared with that over Ni/A catalyst. After testing in steam for 40 h, the carbon conversion over Ni-Co/AC maintained above 86% and its resistance to carbon deposition was superior to Ni/A catalyst.

      The energy and exergy analyses of the absorption refrigeration system (ARS) using H O-[mmim][DMP] mixture were investigated for a wide range of temperature. The equilibrium Dühring ( - - ) and enthalpy ( - - ) of mixture were assessed using the excess Gibbs free non-random two liquid (NRTL) model for a temperature range of 20°C to 140°C and from 0.1 to 0.9. The performance validation of the ARS cycle showed a better coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.834 for H O-[mmim][DMP] in comparison to NH -H O, H O-LiBr, H O-[emim][DMP], and H O-[emim][BF4]. Further, ARS performances with various operating temperatures of the absorber ( ), condenser ( ), generator ( ), and evaporator ( ) were simulated and optimized for a maximum COP and exergetic COP (ECOP). The effects of from 50°C to 150°C and and from 30°C to 50°C on COP and ECOP, the , , and circulation ratio (CR) of the ARS were evaluated and optimized for from 5°C to 15°C. The optimization revealed that needed to achieve a maximum COP which was more than that for a maximum ECOP. Therefore, this investigation provides criteria to select low grade heat source temperature. Most of the series flow of the cases of cooling water from the condenser to the absorber was found to be better than the absorber to the condenser.

      The interaction of multiple fires may lead to a higher flame height and more intense radiation flux than a single fire, which increases the possibility of flame spread and risks to the surroundings. Experiments were conducted using three burners with identical heat release rates (HRRs) and propane as the fuel at various spacings. The results show that flames change from non-merging to merging as the spacing decreases, which result in a complex evolution of flame height and merging point height. To facilitate the analysis, a novel merging criterion based on the dimensionless spacing / was proposed. For non-merging flames ( / >0.368), the flame height is almost identical to a single fire; for merging flames ( / ≤0.368), based on the relationship between thermal buoyancy and thrust (the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the flame), a quantitative analysis of the flame height, merging point height, and air entrainment was formed, and the calculated merging flame heights show a good agreement with the measured experimental values. Moreover, the multi-point source model was further improved, and radiation fraction of propane was calculated. The data obtained in this study would play an important role in calculating the external radiation of propane fire.

      Jie JI ,   Junrui DUAN   et al.

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