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      Topology optimization is a pioneer design method that can provide various candidates with high mechanical properties. However, high resolution is desired for optimum structures, but it normally leads to a computationally intractable puzzle, especially for the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method. In this study, an efficient, high-resolution topology optimization method is developed based on the super-resolution convolutional neural network (SRCNN) technique in the framework of SIMP. SRCNN involves four processes, namely, refinement, path extraction and representation, nonlinear mapping, and image reconstruction. High computational efficiency is achieved with a pooling strategy that can balance the number of finite element analyses and the output mesh in the optimization process. A combined treatment method that uses 2D SRCNN is built as another speed-up strategy to reduce the high computational cost and memory requirements for 3D topology optimization problems. Typical examples show that the high-resolution topology optimization method using SRCNN demonstrates excellent applicability and high efficiency when used for 2D and 3D problems with arbitrary boundary conditions, any design domain shape, and varied load.

      Liang XUE ,   Jie LIU   et al.
      Surface accuracy directly affects the surface quality and performance of mechanical parts. Circular hole, especially spatial non-planar hole set is the typical feature and working surface of mechanical parts. Compared with traditional machining methods, additive manufacturing (AM) technology can decrease the surface accuracy errors of circular holes during fabrication. However, an accuracy error may still exist on the surface of circular holes fabricated by AM due to the influence of staircase effect. This study proposes a surface accuracy optimization approach for mechanical parts with multiple circular holes for AM based on triangular fuzzy number (TFN). First, the feature lines on the manifold mesh are extracted using the dihedral angle method and normal tensor voting to detect the circular holes. Second, the optimal AM part build orientation is determined using the genetic algorithm to optimize the surface accuracy of the circular holes by minimizing the weighted volumetric error of the part. Third, the corresponding weights of the circular holes are calculated with the TFN analytic hierarchy process in accordance with the surface accuracy requirements. Lastly, an improved adaptive slicing algorithm is utilized to reduce the entire build time while maintaining the forming surface accuracy of the circular holes using digital twins via virtual printing. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is experimentally validated using two mechanical models.

      The power density of axial piston pumps can benefit greatly from increased rotational speeds. However, the maximum rotational speed of axial piston machines is limited by the cavitation phenomenon for a given volumetric displacement. This paper presents a scaling law derived from an analytical cavitation model to estimate the speed limitations for the same series of axial piston pumps. The cavitation model is experimentally verified using a high-speed axial piston pump, and the scaling law is validated with open specification data in product brochures. Results show that the speed limitation is approximately proportional to the square root of the inlet pressure and inversely proportional to the cube root of volumetric displacement. Furthermore, a characteristic constant is defined based on the presented scaling law. This constant can represent the comprehensive capacity of axial piston pumps free from cavitation.

      Qun CHAO ,   Jianfeng TAO   et al.
      A Lagrange dynamic model is established based on small-angle approximation to improve the simulation model for shipborne helicopter landing collision. To describe fuselage motion effectively, the proposed model considers ship motion, the interaction of the tires with the deck, and tire slippage. A mechanism of sliding motion is built, and a real-time reliability analysis of the algorithm is implemented to validate the proposed model. Numerical simulations are also conducted under different operation conditions. Results show that the proposed dynamic model can simulate the collision motion of helicopter landing in real time. Several suggestions for helicopter pilot landing are likewise provided.

      Dingxuan ZHAO ,   Haojie YANG   et al.

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